What Is The Principles of Computing.

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What Is The Principles of Computing .


Table of content(TOC)

Principles of Computing: Any computer needs two things to work - hardware and software. 


What is Hardware?

Computer machines and components are called hardware. Hardware is the physical structure of a computer.

Virtually all the things we can see and touch fall under the hardware. Such as - system units, monitors, printers, keyboards, mouse memory devices, etc.


What is software?

Hardware cannot perform any task on its own.  Hardware must be instructed to perform any task.  And this work of instruction is done by the software.

Software is a set of programs, rules, and instructions that govern the functioning of a computer system and coordinate between the various hardware of the computer.

The software determines when and what function the hardware will perform.  We cannot see or touch the software.  Thus, it can be said that if the hardware is the engine, then the software fuels it.


What is the working principle of a computer?

The functioning of a computer is broadly divided into five parts which are necessary for every type of computer. Such as (i) Input (ii) Storage (iii) Processing (iv) Output and (v) Control

What is Input?

The act of inserting data and instructions into a computer is called input.  This is accomplished by the input unit.


What is storage?

Data and instructions are stored in the memory unit so that they can be used as needed.  The interim and final results obtained after processing by the computer are also stored in the memory unit.


What is processing?

According to the instructions on the data received by Input, Arithmetical and Logical Operations are converted into information and the desired tasks are performed.


What is the output?

Output is the act of displaying information or results to the user after processing by a computer.  This is accomplished by the output unit.


What is control?

Controlling the devices, instructions, and information used in various processes and establishing synergy between them is called control.


Main Components of Computer

The internal structure of a computer can be different in different computers but can be divided into the following parts depending on the methodology.

( i ) Input Unit

( ii ) Storage Unitor Memory

( iii ) System Unit

( a ) Mother Board

( b ) Central Processing Unit

( c ) Primary or Main Memory

( iv ) Output Unit

Main Components of Computer

What is an Input Device?

The electrochemical device or device used to insert data, programs, instructions, and commands into a computer are called an input device.

The input unit receives data and instructions from the user, converts them into digital form, and presents them for processing. Since the computer can only understand binary signals (0 and 1 or on and off).

So all input devices convert data and instructions into binary signals with the help of the Input Interface.

What are the functions of an input device?

(i) Accepting data, instructions, and programs.

(ii) Convert them into binary code.

(iii) To hand over the changed code to the computer system.

What are examples of input devices?

Some examples of input devices are such as keyboards, mouse, magnetic, optical pen, scanner, bar code reader, MICR, punchcard reader, etc.


Storage Unit or Memory

Data and instructions are kept in memory before processing. The interim and final results obtained by the process are also kept in memory. Thus memory preserves the following:

(i) Data and instructions are given for the process

(ii) Intermediate results

(iii) Final results

Memory is mainly divided into two parts. Which is as follows:

(i) Primary Main Memory

(ii) Secondary or auxiliary memory


Primary Main Memory

It is an electronic memory located inside a computer system unit. Its memory capacity is low while speed is fast. It stores temporary instructions and instantaneous results.

This is volatile memory in which the information is also lost when the computer is turned off. The data and instructions are temporarily kept in primary memory just before processing.

Interim results and received output are stored in primary memory before display. Semiconductor registers, Registers, Cache (ROM), and RAM are examples of primary memory.

These include the register or cache memory built into the CPU or microprocessor, while ROM and RAM are mounted on the motherboard. The CPU is directly connected to the cache memory.


Secondary or Auxiliary Memory

Data, software, and end results are stored permanently in supporting memory. 

The data is brought from the auxiliary memory to the main memory before processing by the computer processor.  

Auxiliary memory has the ability to store huge data at a low cost. 

It is a non-volatile memory in which data is not destroyed when the computer is turned off or power is not available.  

Examples of auxiliary memory are Magnetic Disks, Optical disks, Hard disks, etc.


What is Registers?

It is a very high-speed primary memory built with a CPU (Central Pho cessing Unit) or microprocessor. It is also called the working memory of the CPU.

The CPU is able to process only the data located in the register. 

Hence data and instructions are transferred to the register before processing. 

The access time of register memory can be 1-2 nanoseconds.


What is Cache Memory?

The cache memory is directly connected to the CPU. Therefore, there is no need to use the system bus of the computer motherboard to move data from the cache memory to CPU. Hence the speed of data transfer is fast.

The CPU first looks for cache memory for the desired information. If the desired information is not found in the cache memory, it is searched in ROM / RAM.

Cache memory acts as a buffer between the CPU and the main memory.

Cache memory is extremely fast, but it is more expensive. The cache memory can have an access time of 2–10 nanoseconds.


What is RAM - Random access Memory?

The RAM is a semiconductor memory chip that is mounted on the memory slot on the motherboard.

It is a volatile primary memory. In this, the access time of the data does not depend on the physical state of the data. Hence its speed is fast.

During processing, data and instructions are stored in supporting memory and stored in RAM.  

The CPU receives these from RAM and performs data processing. An interim or final result is temporarily stored in RAM.

What is RAM - RandomAccess Memory

What is ROM - Read-only memory?

ROM and semiconductor is a memory chip that is installed on a computer motherboard by a computer manufacturer. 

ROM is a permanent primary memory in which the stored data is neither destroyed nor can be changed.

The software required to start the computer is stored in the ROM.


FIATA Fera ( C - MOS Chip - Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor Chip ) 

If some information is turned on on the computer after some time or day, it still gives the exact time and day of the present.  Such information is stored in C-MOS chip memory.

 C - MOS chip memory is a semiconductor memory installed on a computer motherboard.  With this, a button-shaped battery remains, due to which the C-MOS memory keeps working even when the computer is off.


What is a System Unit?

The system unit of a personal computer is its main hardware. The system unit is like a box.

Except for the input and output devices, all the hardware systems of the computer are located in the unit itself.

System units mainly consist of a power supply unit, motherboard, motherboard, central processing unit or microprocessor, main memory, and many ports.


What is a motherboard?

The motherboard is the main circuit board of a computer. The entire computer revolves around the motherboard.  

The motherboard is equipped with a CPU (Central Processing Unit), ROM (ROM) chip, RAM (RAM) chip, memory, etc. devices.

Other computer equipment such as input unit, output unit, hard disk drive, CD drive, sound card, video card, etc. are connected to the motherboard itself.  

Expansion Slots will also be built on the motherboard to connect hardware devices in the future.


What is a computer bus?

A cluster of conductive wires on a motherboard that carries computer data and signals from one place to another within a computer system is called a computer bus.

The exchange of instructions and information between the CPU and other hardware of the computer system and the peripheral device takes place by bus route.


What is Internal / System Bus?

Data and signals are exchanged between devices on the motherboard by an internal or system bus. In this, the speed of data transfer is fast.

The system bus is divided into three parts - Data Bus, Address Bus, and Control Bus.


What is External / Expansion Bus?

External or Expansion simply connects computer peripheral devices such as keyboards, mouse, monitors, printers, hard disks, CD drives, etc. to the motherboard.

In this, the data transfer speed is relatively slow.

Extra Fact-

A computer bus is the main highway inside the computer on which data and information rapidly move from one place to another.


What is a Central Processing Unit or Microprocessor?

The CPU is also called the heart or brain of the computer. It controls, directs, and coordinates all the functions of the computer (Control, Supervise, and Coordinate).

The CPU also processes the data as directed. The CPU is actually a dense integrated circuit chip (IC Chip) also called a microprocessor.

There are millions of electronic devices in a single microprocessor. This processor is mounted on the computer's motherboard.

The CPU works on the basis of Stored Program Instructions.

Data and instructions are temporarily stored in the register in the CPU before processing.

Performs arithmetic and logical operations for data processing according to the instructions located in the CPU register. 

All the processing of data processing is done by the CPU itself.


What are the main functions of the CPU?

(i) Determining the order of various processes.

(ii) To control and direct the various devices of the computer.

(iii) To coordinate between computer hardware and software.

(iv) Processing the input data as directed.


How many parts does a CPU have?

The CPU can be divided into three main parts in terms of hardware.

(i) Control Unit

(ii) Arithmetic Logic Unit

(iii) memory register

CPU के कितने भाग होते हैं ?



What is a Control Unit?

The control unit of the CPU controls all the functions of the computer and coordinates between the software and the hardware.  

The control unit contains the list of tasks that can be done by the CPU, which is called Instruction Set. The control unit is called the Nerve System of the computer.


What are the main functions of a control unit?

(i) Controlling input and output devices and other hardware.

(ii) Controlling the functions of the arithmetic logic unit.

(iii) To fetch data from the main memory and store them instantly.

(iv) To read the instructions and give orders to implement them.

(v) To coordinate between hardware and software.

Extra Fact

A computer is often called a system because it consists of several devices combined together to give instructions and get a definite result.


What is an ALU - Arithmetic Logic Unit?

The arithmetic logic unit is a part of the CPU. The actual work of data processing is done by ALU itself.  

It works on all types of mathematical and logical operations according to the instructions received from the control unit on the data.

Extra Facts

Intel and AMD - Advanced Micro Devices are the two major microprocessor manufacturers.  The major microprocessors or CPU chips manufactured by them are - Intel Pentium - Intel Celeron - Intel Xeon - Intel Core 2 Duo - Intel Atom -  AMD Athlon-AMD Duron.


How many parts does ALU have?

ALU is again divided into parts- AU (Arithmetic Unit) and LU (Logical Unit).

AU performs basic arithmetic calculations on data such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc.

On the other hand, LU performs logical operations on data such as big, small, equal (greater than, less than, equal to).

Thus, arithmetic and logic units perform arithmetic calculations and comparisons on data.



What is BIOS - Basic Input Output System?

BIOS is a software program. It is stored by the motherboard manufacturer in a permanent ROM memory chip and installed on the computer motherboard. 

When the computer is turned on, the BIOS software runs first.

The BIOS examines the hardware connected to the computer called the Power on Self Test (POST).

The BootStrap Loader program located in the BIOS checks the operating system software and orders it to be inserted into the main memory.

Pressing the delete button (DEL key) while the computer is turned on opens BIOS setup where we can make changes in BIOS as per given options.



What are Output Devices?

The output device is a device used by the computer to convey the interim and final results obtained after processing.

It connects the computer with the user and displays the results obtained by the processor in a user-friendly format.

Since the results obtained from the processor are in binary signals (0 or 1), they are converted into normal signals by the Output Interface.


What are the functions of an output device?

(i) Getting results from CPU

(ii) Transform the results obtained into human-understandable signals

(iii) To convey the changed signals of the result to the user.

Examples of output devices

Some examples of output devices are - monitor, printer, plotter, speaker, screen image projector, card reader, etc.


Factors affecting the speed of CPU

The performance of a CPU or microprocessor is measured by the number of instructions that can be edited in one second.

Since the CPU performs millions of instructions in one second, its speed is measured in MIPS (Million Instructions per Second) or BIPS (Billion Instructions per Second).

Factors affecting CPU speed are:

( i ) System Clock 

The speed of the CPU's data processing depends on the electronic clock inside the computer, which is called the System Clock.

The work of data processing is divided into many small and basic steps.

After one phase is finished, wait for the register clock pulse to begin the second phase.

Clock pulses are generated by System Clock.  Clearly, the faster the system clock generates a clock pulse, the faster the CPU's data processing speed.

The 200MHz clock will operate at twice the speed of the 100 MHz clock if other parameters are the same.

The system clock speed is measured by the number of clock pulses generated in one second.  The number of pulses generated in one second is called Hertz - Hz.

The system clock speed is usually represented in MHz - 10 pulse per Second or GHz - 10 ° pulse per Second.

Nowadays available computers can have system clock speeds ranging from 500 MHz to 4GHz.

( ii ) Register Memory 

The registers are made inside the CPU and are called the working memory of the CPU.

The CPU can only process the data located in the register. The higher the number and size of the register in the CPU, the faster the CPU's processing speed will be.

( iii ) Word Length 

The word range is the number of binary digits that a computer takes for processing at a time.  Computer speed increases as word range is high.

Word ranges can be up to 8, 16, 32 or 64 bits.  The term 64 bit means that the CPU can process 64 bit data simultaneously.

( iv ) Cache Memory

The cache memory is directly connected to the CPU, so its data transfer speeds are faster.  Obviously, CPU speed will also be faster when the cache memory is large.

( v ) System Bus

The width of the system bus built into the computer affects the CPU speed.

If the width of the system bus is 32 bits, it means that the computer bus has 32 wires.

This means that the processor can exchange 32-bit data simultaneously.

( vi ) Parallel Operation 

Implementation of multiple instructions simultaneously leads to better utilization of CPU capacity which increases computer speed.

In a Duel Core or Multi-Core processor, two or more processors are made simultaneously on the same chip.

It uses parallel processing which increases CPU performance.

( vii ) Integration between CPU and Peripherals 

Generally, the CPU performs rapid calculations.  Therefore, slowing down of other devices affects the speed of the computer.


Measuring the performance of a Computer System

Throughput : 

The number of useful processing performed by the computer per unit time is called the throughput.

More output indicates better performance but it also depends on the type of work process.

Response Time : 

In a multitasking operating system, the computer gives little time for processing all the tasks.

Response time is the time between the computer being given the task for processing and the first response made by the CPU to perform that task.  

Response time should be reduced for better performance.

Turn Around Time : 

Turn-around time is the time between the computer being given the task for processing and the computer completing it and giving the final result. Turn around time should be reduced for better performance.

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